|PACIRA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. filed this Form 10-K on 03/01/2017|
In 2016, net cash provided by operating activities was $33.5 million, which largely resulted from an 11% increase in EXPAREL net product sales and $2.0 million in milestones earned under our agreement with Aratana. Our operating loss of $37.9 million was more than offset by non-cash expenses of $49.1 million, including $31.2 million of stock-based compensation, $17.5 million of depreciation and amortization expense and $22.3 million of funds provided by net changes in our operating assets and liabilities. These net changes included a $30.4 million decrease in inventory due to a $20.5 million charge for inventory that did not meet routine stability test specifications and a $9.9 million decrease in our inventory investment, partially offset by increases of $4.1 million in accounts receivable and prepayments for clinical trials of $3.2 million.
In 2015, net cash provided by operating activities was $28.0 million, which largely resulted from increased revenues and improved gross margins versus 2014. Positive cash flow from operations reflected net income of $1.9 million plus $49.5 million in add backs of non-cash expenses comprised of $33.4 million of stock-based compensation and $16.1 million of depreciation and amortization, partially offset by a $23.3 million net investment in operating assets and liabilities, including a substantial investment in inventory. Both net income and cash flow were negatively impacted by legal expenses related to the warning letter issued by the OPDP in September 2014, the related FDA lawsuit which was amicably resolved in December 2015 and the DOJ inquiry.
In 2014, net cash provided by operating activities was $26.6 million. Our net loss of $13.7 million was more than offset by $39.6 million in non-cash expenses comprised of $24.8 million of stock-based compensation and $14.7 million of depreciation and amortization. Cash flow benefited from higher EXPAREL product sales and significantly improved gross margins, which were partially offset by expenditures for additional field-based personnel and related educational, selling and promotional initiatives, as well as additional administrative support. We also received an $8.0 million upfront payment from Mundipharma in connection with the extension of the term of existing supply and distribution agreements and the expansion of the territory where Mundipharma can market and distribute DepoCyte.
In 2016, net cash used in investing activities was $61.8 million, which reflected purchases of fixed assets of $24.7 million. Major capital projects included the continued expansion of our manufacturing capacity in Swindon, England in partnership with Patheon. We also purchased $21.2 million of short-term investments (net of maturities) and made $15.9 million of contingent consideration payments to Skyepharma related to the March 2007 acquisition, including an $8.0 million milestone payment in connection with achieving $250.0 million of EXPAREL net sales collected on an annual basis and $7.9 million in percentage payments on collections of net sales of EXPAREL.
In 2015, net cash used in investing activities was $19.3 million, which reflected purchases of fixed assets of $40.3 million. Major capital projects included investing in a new research and development facility at our Science Center Campus and continuing expenditures for expanding our manufacturing capacity in Swindon, England in partnership with Patheon. We also made contingent consideration payments to Skyepharma of $7.1 million related to the March 2007 acquisition. These expenditures were offset by $28.2 million of short-term investment maturities, net of purchases.
In 2014, net cash used in investing activities was $120.4 million. This was due to a net investment of $84.0 million in short-term and long-term investments, mainly purchased using the net proceeds from our April 2014 follow-on underwritten public offering. We spent $23.0 million for purchases of fixed assets, which included major investments for an EXPAREL manufacturing fill line and our capacity expansion project with Patheon. We also paid $13.4 million in contingent consideration payments to Skyepharma, which included an $8.0 million milestone payment and $5.4 million in percentage payments on collections of net sales of EXPAREL in connection with the March 2007 acquisition.